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High and Ultra-High Vacuum - Vacaero

Feb 21, 2012 Table 1 – Classification of Vacuum Ranges Notes: [a] The SI unit of pressure is the Pascal (1 Pa = 1 N m-2) [b] Normal atmospheric pressure of 1 atmosphere is 101,325 Pa or 1013 mbar (1 bar =105 Pa) [c] Normal atmospheric pressure of 1 atmosphere is 760 Torr (1 Torr = 133.3 Pa) [d] Ultrahigh vacuum is

Engineer's Guide To Effective Heat Processing - Despatch Industries

furnaces. To some extent, all ovens and furnaces utilize the same basic principles of thermal transfer. Selection of heat processing equipment is dependent on the special atmospheres such as argon or nitrogen, or may incorporate special construction type ovens can be classified as cabinet-style or truck-loaded type.

Steel - Ladle metallurgy | metallurgy | Britannica

This is a small electric-arc furnace with an 8- to 25-megavolt-ampere transformer, three electrodes for arc heating, and the ladle acting as the furnace shell—as shown in A in the Nitrogen is not as mobile in liquid steel as hydrogen, so that only 15 to 30 percent is typically removed during a 20-minute vacuum treatment.